Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: the Report

Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: Report of the Parliamentary Committee of Inquiry

Labor exploitation and illegal recruitment are also spreading across the country through the use of modern digital technologies, but there is a lack of adequate structural tools to ensure assistance to victims.


1. Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: the spread of the phenomenon

2. Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: algorithms and new technologies

3. Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: the protection of victims

1. Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: the spread of the phenomenon

There Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry into Working Conditions in Italy, Exploitation and Safety at Workestablished on May 12, 2021, filed in Provisional report of the activity carried out where a series of constants related to the phenomena of illegal hiring and labor exploitation are identified.

Obviously the first constant is “the pursuit of benefit with prevailing methods, terms and proportions in the protection of dignity, health and safety››.

Another constant is the ‹‹ Geographical extension throughout the country ›› of labor exploitation and illegal hiring: The data show that “no region is exempt from this scourge that is not worthy of a civilized country.”

There Commission In addition, it highlights how the expansion of illegal hiring and labor exploitation affects both the countryside, especially in the provinces with a high agricultural vocation, and in the metropolitan neighborhoods for construction, transport, porterage and maintenance works. .

In this sense in the Relationship highlights how it is consolidating “the offer of a mostly foreign uncontrolled metropolitan labor››, defining “Urban hiring” is the “labor exploitation” that assumes the characteristic of hiring workers in identifiable points of the city for services or actions of short duration ››.

Thus, according to the Commissionif on the one hand labor exploitation “is concentrated in the agricultural sector, where there is more irregular work with the resource of poorly paid labor, deprived of decent working conditions and human beings, of non-EU origin ››, of the other, evidence shows that cases of illegal hiring are now being reported in all areas of work: construction, health, care, nursing homes ››, etc.

2. Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: algorithms and new technologies

There Commission focuses, in particular, on the analysis of new forms of labor exploitation achieved through the use of modern technologies: this is the so-called “Digital hiring”, a phenomenon “that sees the use of algorithms as the fulcrum ›› of labor exploitation.

In fact, “the increasingly evanescent figure of the employer is often a favorable opportunity” for the birth of new phenomena of labor exploitation such as “digital hiring where the workers of the concert economy they replaced the field workers››.

“The deepest danger,” we read in the pages of Relationship“The algorithm and, more generally, artificial intelligence can become an uncontrolled prescriptive tool.” recent cases of labor exploitation of riders and of corporalate on ciclofattorini show how real this danger is.

In addition, according to the Commission “The massive entry into the use of digital technologies has favored, above all, the expansion of companies in the logistics sector where there is currently a process of extracting benefits from work that catalyzes the precariousness of employment through the development of the phenomenon of illegal intermediation of the labor force.›› (the so-called corporalate).

3. Labor exploitation and illegal hiring: the protection of victims

“At the criminological level, it is very useful to note that the complaints filed by workers are very scarce or almost non-existent.” Victims of labor exploitation and illegal hiring.

In Relationshipin fact, we read that “practically all the investigations carried out in the matter of illegal hiring and more widely of labor exploitation, are initiated on the initiative of the offices” and in particular of the INL. This shows how the conditions of labor exploitation are “the same freedom of victims to react to injustice and harassment and to demand social protection”.

In fact, in the case of workers who are victims of illegal hiring and labor exploitation to the “classical silence,” which is characterized by mere silence and fear […] is added the serious need to accept any working conditionwith an unworthy salary, without security conditions or in some cases even in a degrading accommodation ››.

Definitely the absence of complaints by victims of labor exploitation and illegal hiring “must go back to a particular and profound precondition of economic, human and social hardship to which the victim cannot react “.

There Commission he also stresses that “in a state of human and economic need, the lower the protection of victims, the greater the resignation, silence and expansion of organized labor exploitation” and illegal hiring.

Tan the absence in our country seems serious “of structural instruments, not episodic, apt to guarantee the assistance to the victims, once ascertained the condition of labor exploitation ››.

In fact, despite appreciable initiatives (p. the collaboration between the IOM and the INL for the fight against illegal hiring and the protection of victims of labor exploitation), in particular after the arrest of the employer or the corporal in flagrante delicto, it is often found “the lack of a network solidarity that guarantees the social and economic, health, legal, linguistic and housing assistance ›› to the victims of labor exploitation and illegal hiring.

It is precisely from this point of view that the Commission promotes “a new specific model of intervention in favor of victims, based on cooperation between prefectural structures, the Public Prosecutor’s Office, health structures and third sector entities.››. This model, we read Relationship“It seems to be the archetype of a necessary solidarity intervention that, where it has already been experienced spontaneously, has given good results.”

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