The maturity exam: one of the milestones in the education of each student. But also a moment of personal growth. He who waits for it fears it; those who have already faced it, however, remember, he dreams, also talks about it in the coming years. As if it were one of those once-in-a-lifetime experiences (is expected) and then become part of your wayown “count”. But the exam has changed a lot in recent years, especially in most recently. He is an accomplice pandemicevery twelve months, they intervened news and changes.
But whoever thinks this first, over almost a century – yes, because in the 2023 Maturity “turns” 100 years – there have been no other transformations, not even radical ones, you are very wrong. Because every exam reform has marked whole generations: there are those who “We graduated at sixty” and those of “What do you want to know, who hasn’t done the quiz” and, again, who says “Yeah Al that sounds pretty crap to me, Looks like BT aint for me either.. Don’t know what we’re talking about? Don’t worry, we’ll tell you.
The first, very hard, Maturity in Gentle Sauce: Four Written and Oral in a Three-Year Program
Let’s start at the beginning. The exam at the end of fifth grade is bornas already mentioned, in 1923. We are in the midst of the fascist regime and the Minister to whom to direct his insults for having given birth to Maturity is Giovanni Gentile. Kind of indulgent: written testsin fact, in its day there were four and the oral exam was based on the whole program of the last three years. To complete the package, the minister decided that the examination committee was made up only of external members (mainly university professors). Thus the percentages of rejectedat that time, they were very high. Probably few students liked Giovanni Gentile, and yet, wherever he is, every June since then, his ears may be ringing because of his “invention”.
World War II is approaching: there is a discount on the maturity exam
In 1937, the examination programs they were reduced to last year. In 1940, things changed even more: Italy was about to enter the war and the Minister of National Education, Giuseppe Bottai, decided that the examining board was internalexcept president and vice president. Whereas, for a couple of years after the start of the war, the examination was replaced by a simple final vote.
The post-war period: the very toasted gentle Maturity returns, with some simplifications
He was the minister Guido Gonellayear 1951, which he decided restore Giovanni Gentile’s high school examboth for the number of written tests this for the oral that for the Formation of the commission. Minister Gonella, however, put a hand to his heart and inserted internal members into the commission (first two and then only one) e it limited the programs to the two years prior to the lastfor which however they came only required “Tracks”.
The “experimental” maturity of 1969 that lasted almost thirty years: two subjects and only one internal member
In 1969, the minister Fiorentino Sullo he conceived the examination that characterized the following thirty years: commission mainly externalwith the presence of only one internal memberwith two written tests and two oral subjectsof which one a election of the candidate. The vote, in this case, was on sixty. A formula that should have been “experimental”, of the life of only two years. But perhaps he especially liked the students, teachers, and ministers, so much so survived until 1997when the law establishes the “Maturity of the quiz”retired only to 2019although with several changes in progress.
Baccalaureate 1999: the first of the “quizzone” and the joint commission
So in the examination of Baccalaureate Diploma 1999 the examination devised by the then Minister is released Luigi Berlinguer. It was he who decided the introduction of the third multidisciplinary written test, a real nightmare for students for over twenty years. In the first test, however, the student I could choose from four types of tracks: text analysis, short essay, general topic and historical topic. Its also the invention of school credit, that is, that part of the final grade that depends on the school average of the last three years. At first, they were assigned a three-year course 20 points maximum.
In the oral examination, which again involved all fifth year subjectsthe famous appeared multidisciplinary thesis performed by the candidate. The commission was mixedwith three internal members and three external membersplus the external president. With regard to voting, no more than sixty: the maximum goal for graduates is 100.
Ongoing changes: from the temporary amnesty of internal commissions to the variation of school credits
The parenthesis of 2002 to 2006with commissions consisting only of internal members except the presidentwanted by the minister Letizia Moratti. As well as numerous ongoing adjustments that have taken place to the introduction of the grade of 100 with honors (initially the maximum coded was precisely 100/100) as well the change in the weight of school creditspassed from 20 a 25. Not to mention the ballet of the exam admission criteria: Initially all fifth graders could participate in Maturity, but in progress the admission sentence trap was introduced. Until the reform of the 2017 which again revolutionized the “system” state exam. An especially unfortunate reform because each year has undergone changes and adjustments. No less due to the health emergency.
Maturity 2019: the first (and only one at the moment) daughter of the “Buona Scuola”. The writings are two again and the thesis disappears
To regulate the exams, from 2019, there is legislative decree 62/2017 which represents one of the last elements of the reform of the “Good school”. What, in theory, it is still in force today. The value of the school credit is growing going from 25 a 40 points achieved in the last three yearsactually moving a good chunk of the exam score to school. Not only that: being admitted to the tests, it is necessary to obtain a sufficiency in all the subjectswith the only chance to be able to “to pass” with just a failureprovided the class council reasons for your choice. Zero toleranceinstead, in the conduct: in this case a bad note gives rise to the rejection.
For admission to the exam, it is also presented the obligation to perform the minimum hours of what we define today as PCTOthe first “School-work alternation”to be “related” to oral interview. As well as, from 2019, girls Invasion tests they also become higher fifths exam admission requirements. Also, during the interview, reflections on citizenship and the Constitution are needed (today Citizenship).
With the 2017 reform, signed by Valeria Fedeli, they had already been eliminate the third test and the oral “rehearsal.”. The writings, then, become two. In the first trial, the short essay is replaced by the argumentative text. The traces of the current issues are dividedas well as those of text analysis. Yes sacrificing the historical theme which will come later “Replaced” with the historical trace, among the three intended for the argumentative text. The second test, however, takes place multidisciplinarywith the possibility of having to deal well two address issues in a single task.
Maturity 2019: Oral questionnaire style envelopes will be released
Returning to the last structural reform, for the first year in force, 2019, then-Minister Bussetti interpreted the legislation in his own way, creating the method of the famous “envelopes” in the oral interview: the final question, which provides (still today) discussion of the material chosen by the committeethat year was organized through the lucky draw – for the student – of a between three envelopes made by the teachers, which contains the starting point of the interdisciplinary path. A “innovation”that, which unleashed not a few controversies so much so that, at the end of the same year, it was presented by the new Minister Fioramonti.
Maturity 2020-21: the pandemic forces the maxi-oral (and it is already) with an internal commission except the president
With the arrival of the Covid-19 pandemic, however, the “New Exam” he never took the stage again. Ministerial ordinances, within the regulatory framework of 2017, in the last two years, have completely changed the structure of the tests and the score. In 2020, after the confinement of March and April, Minister Azzolina wanted for all students automatic admission to examsthe fully internal commissions I only an oral exammore complex, which also partially replaced the writings.
A formula, the so-called “Oral Maxi”that was repeated in 2021but no entry for everyone but restoring the faults. To teachers, in fact, the possibility of being excluded from the final exam has been delegated students who, taking into account the difficulties related to the pandemic situation, it did not meet the minimum requirements to be able to take the exam. Maturity 2021 also appeared a more accurate definition of the role of paper, a paper that the candidates presented to the committee on the subject of guidance. A kind of substitute for the second test.
Common to both Maturities the voting system: as much as 60 points for school creditregarding 40 for maxi-oral. And the students thanks: the average of the notes yes behind compared to previous years.
2022 due date: the return of the written tests, although with some discounts
For a short time, it was assumed that a examination that will consist only of the oral interview could also last the following yearsthanks to the statement of the current Minister Bianchi who, on the subject, stated: “We’re thinking about it”. Except then totally change your mind by the publication of the ordinance of last March, which it modifies the scaffolding of maturity again: the writings returnin addition to oral examinationbut with a system that should “facilitate” the students. Indeed, only the first test will keep the “national” track. established by the Ministry of Education; while the second testwhich will focus just one of the address issues (even when the disciplines that characterize a single course are more than one), it will be decided by the teachers of the commissions – once again all inmates except the President – at the institutional level.
too the written test score is reduced: the Italian will weigh 15 pointsthe second writing only 10. He oral interview it looks like this again pre-pandemic: without the elaborate prepared by graduates in the years 2020 and 2021, without the “envelopes” but with the materials from which to begin the interrogation. Try this will have a value of 25 points. He school credit will increase its weightcoming to contribute to the final grade of good 50 points.